Physical Chemistry

April 13, 2017

Physical chemistry deals with the basic principles of physical science involved in chemical systems. It often deals with the macroscopic side of chemical systems; like inter molecular forces, thermodynamic properties, chemical equilibria, reaction kinetics and electrochemical processes.

However modern physical chemistry also deals with the principles of quantum mechanics to help in understanding the chemical phenomena at atomic and molecular level.

On the following page you can find links to topics in physical chemistry.


IIT JEE 2015 solved question paper

October 21, 2016

Find step wise interactive solutions to: IIT JEE 2015 main in chemistry subject at: It is also equally helpful to NEET aspirants.


Sample questions:



The ionic radii (in Å) of N3-, O2- and F are respectively:

(1) 1.36, 1.40 and 1.71
(2) 1.36, 1.71 and 1.40
(3) 1.71, 1.40 and 1.36
(4) 1.71, 1.36 and 1.40


The synthesis of alkyl fluorides is best accomplished by :

(1) Free radical fluorination
(2) Sandmeyer’s reaction
(3) Finkelstein reaction
(4) Swarts reaction


August 22, 2016

Factors that influence the reaction rates of chemical reactions include :

1) Concentration of reactants

2) Pressure

3) Temperature

4) Catalyst

5) Nature of reactants

6) Orientation of reacting species

7) Surface area

8) Intensity of light

9) Nature of solvent

According to the collision theory, the rate of a reaction is directly proportional to the number of effective collisions per second between the reactant molecules. Rate of a reaction is directly proportional to the concentration of reactants.

i.e. rate (r) ∝ cn 


c = concentration

n = order of the reaction

or r = kc


k = specific rate

Explanation: The number of collisions and hence the activated collisions between the reactant molecules increase with increase in concentration. Therefore, according to the collision theory, the rate of a reaction should increase with increase in the concentration since the rate is directly proportional to the collision frequency.



Interactive solutions to IIT JEE 2015 chemistry question paper

October 12, 2015

Are you afraid of IIT JEE chemistry paper? Do you want to score more marks in it easily? Just visit interactive solutions page for 2015 MAIN question paper at:

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CSIR NET & GATE chemistry study material & free online coaching

May 26, 2015

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October 30, 2014

Welcome. Good news to chemistry students, who have a strong desire to pursue their dream research with a scholarship at prestigious institutions of India. I launched this web page to cater the needs of aspirants who wish to crack CSIR NET &  GATE exams in chemical sciences.

On this page, you can find CSIR NET chemistry study material and solved previous year model papers, that help in preparation and makes your life easy.

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Electrolysis – Electrolytic cell – Electrodes

May 17, 2014


Electrolysis involves dissociation (lysis) of an electrolyte by using a direct electric current.  In this process, electrical energy is used to carryout a non-spontaneous redox chemical reaction.

The setup used to serve this purpose is known as electrolytic cell.


What is an electrolytic cell?

An electrolytic cell is used to perform electrolysis. It is provided with two electrodes, which are connected to different ends of the DC electric source. The electrode connected to the positive end is referred to as anode and that which is connected to the negative end is referred to as cathode.


Fajan’s rules

May 8, 2014

While it is taught that the chemical bonds are divided broadly into ionic and covalent types, however, in reality, most of the bonds are neither purely ionic nor purely covalent. These terms are used to indicate two extreme cases. The ionic bond refers to complete transfer of electrons from one atom to the other, whereas the pure covalent bond involves equal sharing of electrons. Nevertheless, the nature of chemical bonds in most of the compounds are somewhere in between above said two extremes. 


Read more at:

Aldol reaction

October 15, 2013

The Aldol addition reaction involves the addition of α-carbon of an enolizable aldehyde or ketone to the carbonyl group of another aldehyde or ketone and thus by giving a β-hydroxy carbonyl compound also known as an aldol (indicating both aldehyde and alcohol groups). The reaction is catalyzed more commonly by a base or some times by an acid.

Read more at:


October 2, 2013

The le Chatelier’s principle can be stated as:

When external stress is applied on a system at dynamic equilibrium, the system shifts the position of equilibrium so as to nullify the effect of stress. 

Stress can be applied on chemical systems by changing the concentration or pressure or temperature. Therefore the le Chatelier’s principle can also be stated as:

When a chemical system at dynamic equilibrium is disturbed by changing the concentration of either reactants or products; or by changing the partial pressures of any of gaseous reactants or of gaseous products; or temperature, the position of equilibrium is changed in that direction so as to establish a new equilibrium state i.e., either forward reaction or backward reaction is favored.

1) Explanation of le Chatelier’s principle

2) Effect of concentration

3) Effect of pressure

4) Effect of temperature

5) Illustrations

6) Industrial applications